Halfpennies, Farthings, and Nobles: A Guide to England’s Medieval Coins

Andrea CefaloAndrea Cefalo is a Medieval fiction author and Medieval history blogger. Her debut novel, The Fairytale Keeper,  was a quarter-finalist in Amazon’s 2013 Breakthrough Novel Contest. The next three books in The Fairytale Keeper series –The Countess’s Captive, The Baseborn Lady, and The Traitor’s Target—will debut early next year.  She regularly posts about Medieval history on Facebook and Twitter.
 
 
 
 
The Coins of Medieval England

Medieval coinsI began researching Medieval coinage of the Holy Roman Empire–especially in the area that would become Germany–for my Medieval fiction series. It was a far more complex topic than I anticipated. The coinage went from simple and organized in the ninth century–with Charlemagne’s  declaration that a penny would be 1/240th of a pound of silver—to complex by the thirteenth century. (I’ve written an article entitled Inventing the Penny: Charlemagne’s Lost Effort at a Standard Currency that delves into this.)

For my purposes, I wanted to know what German coins were worth and what a person living in thirteenth century Cologne could buy with them. I thought developing a better understanding of the English coins might help me since I would be using Hodge’s List of prices—a list of Medieval items and their prices along with dates of purchase—to determine this. Below is table containing England’s Medieval coins, the year they were established, and their value.

Image Coin Name Established Value
farthingEnglish Medieval Farthing

1377-1399

Richard II

Farthing

(1/4d)

1216 1/4 of a silver penny
halfpennyEnglish Medieval Halfpenny

1399-1412

Henry IV

Halfpenny

(1/2d)

1100s 1/2 of a silver penny
English Medieval Penny English Medieval Penny

1199 – 1216

King John

Silver Penny

(d)

800s 1/20 of a schilling or…

1/240th of a pound of silver

groatEnglish Medieval Groat

1327-1377

Edward III

Silver Groat

(4d)

1200s 4 silver pennies or…

1/3 of a schilling

During the Middle Ages, the schilling was a unit of account. People didn’t carry schillings in their purses. Schilling

(s)

N/A 12 silver pennies
quarter nobleEnglish Medieval Quarter Noble

1327-1377

Edward III

Quarter Noble

(1s 8d)

Mid 1300s 20 pennies or…

1 schilling and 8 pennies

half nobleEnglish Medieval Half Noble

1399-1412

Henry IV

Half Noble

(3s 4d)

1351 40 pennies or…

3 schillings and 4 pennies or…

1/6 of a pound

Edward_III_nobleEnglish Medieval Noble

1354-1355

Edward III

Noble (6s 8d) Mid 1300s 80 pennies or…

6 schillings and 8 pennies or…

1/3 of a pound

During the Middle Ages, the mark was a unit of account. The English didn’t carry marks in their purses. Mark N/A 160 pennies or…

1/2 of a pound

During the Middle Ages, the pound was a unit of account. People didn’t carry pounds in their purses. Pound (£) N/A 240 pennies

60 groats

20 schillings

6 Half Nobles

3 Nobles

2 Marks

Sources:
Banks and Money.” Currency and Banking in the Late Middle Ages. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Brooke, Christopher Nugent Lawrence. Europe in the Central Middle Ages: 962-1154. Harlow: Longman, 2000. Print.
Cavendish, Richard. “The Farthing’s Last Day.” History Today. History Today Volume: 60 Issue: 12, 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
“Medieval Coin Denominations of Europe.” Medieval Coin Denominations of Europe. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Mortimer, Ian. The Time Traveler’s Guide to Medieval England: A Handbook for Visitors to the Fourteenth Century. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010. Print.
 
Images:
http://finds.org.uk/medievalcoins/types/type/id/2136
http://www.coins-of-the-uk.co.uk/halfp.html
http://www.timelineauctions.com/lot/richard-ii-london-farthing/1977/
http://www.calgarycoin.com/medieval3.htm
https://www.yorkcoins.com/h1350_-_edward_iii_(1327-1377),_gold_quarter_noble.htm
https://www.yorkcoins.com/h1350_-_edward_iii_(1327-1377),_gold_quarter_noble.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_(English_coin)
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  1. Pingback: Stretching a Medieval Penny: The Somewhat Empty Purse of a Medieval Shoemaker | Andrea Cefalo | Author of the Fairytale Keeper Series | Young Adult Historical Fiction

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