Frederick II’s Scientific Pursuits
As stated in my previous articles, Frederick studied many of the subjects that interested Aristotle, but it seemed that Frederick was especially interested in astronomy, astrology, geography, zoology, medicine, and human anatomy. Piero della Vigna, a member of the Sicilian school of poets, remarked that Frederick had friars forming maps into globes, tracking the sun’s course through the zodiac, squaring circles, and converting triangles into quadrilaterals. As discussed previously, Frederick sent questions of astronomy and astrology to the sultans of the east, gaining two astronomers for his own court and a planetarium for his collection. Frederick was also interested in medicine and human anatomy. Of particular interest to Frederick was the hygiene of crusading armies. The correlation between hygiene and disease prevention was unknown at the time. In fact, Frederick’s insistence on a Sunday bath was outright scandalous. Frederick’s first crusade was stalled when Frederick fell sick. Some hypothesize that the illness was faked because Frederick did not want to go, but his interest in disease prevention leads me to believe that he actually became very ill, so ill that he was inspired to find out how to keep crusading armies safe from disease. Somehow Frederick made the connection between hygiene and the spread of disease. In 1227, Adam, chanter of Cremona wrote a treatise on the hygiene of crusading armies and dedicated it to the emperor. Theodore also examined the subject of hygiene. Frederick also paid careful attention to his own hygiene in terms of bathing and bloodletting.
It could easily be argued that Frederick’s love of zoology, especially the study of hunting with falcons, surpassed his love of any other subject. In 1231, Frederick brought a menagerie of animals unknown to most Italians including elephants, dromedaries, camels, panthers, gerfalcons, lions, leopards, white falcons, and bearded owl. Five years prior, he took a similar collection to Parma. In 1245, during Frederick’s travels, the monks of Santo Zeon not only kept Frederick and his entourage, they also had to accommodate an elephant, five leopards, and the 24 camels that Frederick used when crossing the Swiss Alps. His menagerie wowed the untraveled population of Germany, of which Frederick was the first person to bring a giraffe.
Frederick particularly enjoyed studying birds and horses, possibly inspired by his love of hunting. He was well versed in Aristotle’s De Animalibus, which he utilized when composing his treatise on ornathology called De Arte Venandi cum Anivabis, which studies the anatomy and behavior of birds . Frederick also commissioned a volume on the treatment of ailments afflicting horses. It was very popular and translated into a variety of languages.
Frederick II’s Strange Experiments
As mentioned earlier, Frederick was interested in the workings of the human body and unafraid to conduct unethical experiments to see if his hypotheses were true. On one occasion, Frederick invited two men to dinner, feeding them very well. He took on one the hunt and had the other sent to bed. Both men were murdered and then disemboweled so Frederick could determine if digestion was better aided by exercise or rest. His examiner determined that the man who had napped, digested his meal better.
Frederick also took an interest in linguistics. Frederick sought to discover the natural language that children would speak, and hoped that in doing so he would discover the language Adam and Eve used when talking with God. In order to discover this, Frederick took a group of infants from nearby orphanages and had them raised by nurses who never held or spoke with the children. According to Slimbene Di Adam who recorded the experiments in his treatise entitled Chronicles, the infants were nursed, kept warm, and bathed, but never spoken to. The hypotheses ranged from Greek to Hebreow, and Latin to the language of God. Unfortunately for Frederick and these poor children, None of them ever spoke and not a single child lived past the age of two.
- Frederick II: 13th Century Renaissance Man (andreacefalo.com)
- 13th Century Kingmaker: Konrad von Hochstaden (andreacefalo.com)
- Medieval Medicine and Mayhem (lionsandlilies.wordpress.com)
- The Influences on 13th Century Renaissance Man, Frederick II (andreacefalo.com)